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Diabetology is a field of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes, as well as on prevention of its consequences, such as arterial hypertension and of its chronic complications (micro- and macroangiopathy, diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, diabetic foot syndrome, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease).
Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by pancreas dysfunction. It manifests as absent or inadequate insulin production or insulin resistance.
First symptoms of diabetes include the following: increased thirst and appetite, frequent night-time urination, somnolence and fatigue, dry mouth.
There are four types of diabetes:
- type 1 diabetes (the pancreas does not produce insulin, insulin therapy is necessary)
- type 2 diabetes (insulin secretion by the pancreas is reduced, treatment may be based on an appropriate diet and oral agents)
- type 3 diabetes (its occurrence is caused by environmental factors or diseases)
- gestational diabetes (otherwise known as gestational diabetes)
The higher risk group includes people:
- overweight or obese;
- in the family of which diabetes previously occurred;
- leading a sedentary lifestyle;
- suffering from hypertension, cirrhosis, thyroid disease, polycystic ovary syndrome.